平面电磁波极化场矢量的时空机理

(1.西安交通大学 城市学院,陕西 西安 710018; 2.西安科技大学 通信与信息工程学院,陕西 西安 710054)

极化场矢量; 相位角; 时空关系; 圆极化; 线极化

Time space mechanism of polarized field vector of plane electromagnetic wave
TIAN Chao1,TIAN Yi-han2

(1.Department of Electrical and Information Engineering,Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an 710018,China; 2.College of Communication and Information Engineering,Xi'an University of Science and Technology,Xi'an 710054,China)

polarized field vector; phase angle; space-time relation; circular polarigation; linear polarigation

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2019.0320

备注

均匀平面电磁波是无线通信、遥控遥测等无线信息工程中的传输媒介,是多种工程技术的核心环节。不同形式极化的电磁波场强矢量的时空关系,决定着平面电磁波的性质,在电磁波发射、接收、不同介质交界面处波的性质分析中,有着重要作用。对电磁波运动时,各种极化场量的时空机理这一根本关系,建立正确的概念,是充分发挥宏观电磁场(波)在工程技术中功能的前提。电磁波场矢量有其特定运动方式,线极化波场矢量并非随着时间上下起伏地运动,圆极化电磁波也不是随着时间滚动着前进。波动方程Emsin(ωt-βz)能够揭示电磁波运动的真实情况。通过对方程的数学分析,阐明了电磁波运动中极化场量的动、静分布,以及它们的时、空相互关系,为运动中极化场量的时空结构,在严格的数学基础上,展示了一个清晰的图像。

The uniform plane electromagnetic wave is the transmission medium in wireless communication systems, remote control systems and telemetry systems etc. It is the core of many engineering technologies. The spatio-temporal relations of the field intensity vectors of different polarized electromagnetic wave determine the characteristics of the plane electromagnetic wave. It plays an important role in the transmission and the reception of the electromagnetic wave and the analysis of the wave properties at interfaces of different medium. The right concepts on the basic relationship of the spatio-temporal mechanism for different polarized field are the premise for the full performance of macro-scopic electromagnetic field wave in engineering. The electromagnetic wave field vector has its specific motion mode. The linearly polarized wave field vector does not move up and down with time. The circularly polarized electromagnetic wave does not roll forward with time. The wave equation can reveal the true state of electromagnetic wave motion. Based on the math analysis of the wave equation, this paper clarifies the dynamic and static distribution of the polarized field vectors, together with their spatio-temporal relation, which, on a basis of strict mathematics analysis, presents a clear vision on the spatio-temporal structures of the polarized field vectors in movement.