黄土高原采煤塌陷区村落搬迁选址的地理适宜度评价

(1.长安大学 地质工程与测绘学院,陕西 西安 710061; 2.西安科技大学 测绘科学与技术学院,陕西 西安 710054)

黄土高原; 采煤塌陷区; 村落迁址; 地理适宜度

Geographical suitability evaluation of villages relocation in coal mining subsidence area of loess plateau
TANG Jing-ya1,YANG Zhi-qiang1,LU Jia-xin2

(1.College of Geological Engineering and Surveying,Chang'an University,Xi'an 710061,China; 2.College of Geomatics,Xi'an University of Science and Technology,Xi'an 710054,China)

loess plateau; coal mining subsidence area; villages relocation; geographical suitability

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2019.0221

备注

村庄下压煤多采取房屋搬迁方式来实现安全开采。煤矿村落选址区的地理适宜度受诸多自然和人文社会因素的影响,目前缺乏普遍适用的评价方法。文中针对黄土矿区复杂的地理环境和采煤沉陷特征,选取黄土沟壑区地面坡度、坡向、地表水和地下水源等自然地理指标以及交通便捷性、耕作半径等社会经济指标作为主要影响因子,将各指标划分为3个等级,确定相应的评价标准,采用专家打分及层次分析法计算各指标相应权重,构建黄土高原矿区村落迁址的地理适宜性评价模型。为验证模型的适用性,以陕西某矿塌陷区的村落迁址为例,基于ArcGIS的叠加分析功能,提取各指标等级对应区域,并按评价模型的对应指标权重进行叠加,得到矿区地理适宜度的综合评价分布图; 对采煤塌陷区内的建筑面积进行统计,结合评价图分析并确定村落搬迁的最佳选址位置。结果 表明,该模型在黄土高原煤矿塌陷区村落迁址中具有较好的适用性,可为煤矿塌陷区村落迁址规划提供技术支持。

Coal mining in villages often adopts building relocation ways to realize safety mining.Geographical suitability of mining village relocation area is affected by many natural and social factors,lacking a universal evaluation method at present.Aiming at the complex characteristics of geographical environment and mining subsidence,this paper used ground slope,slope direction,surface water,underground water resources,traffic convenience,farming radius and other natural geographic and social economic indicators of loess gully region as the main influential factors to determine the corresponding evaluation standards and the relative weights of indicators,where each indicator was divided into three levels,and established geographical suitability evaluation model of village relocation in the loess plateau mining area based on experts scoring and analytic hierarchy process.In order to verify the applicability of the model,this paper took village relocation in the subsidence area of a mine in Shaanxi as an example,getting a comprehensive evaluation figure of geographical suitability in mining area based on overlay analysis using ArcGIS.By statistically analyzing the building area,and combining with the evaluation figure,we determine the best position of village relocation.The result shows that the model has good applicability in the village relocation in the loess plateau coal mining subsidence area,which can provide technical support for village relocation planning of coal mining subsidence area.