基于FDS的不同排烟模式下餐馆火灾数值模拟

(1.榆林职业技术学院 矿业工程系,陕西 榆林 719000; 2.西安科技大学 安全科学与工程学院,陕西 西安 710054)

数值模拟; 餐馆; FDS; 温度; 能见度

Numerical simulation of restaurant fire under different smokeexhaust modes based on FDS
CHEN Tuo-qi1,ZHANG Yu-tao2,LIU Yu-rui2,LIU Rui2,YANG Yong2,ZHONG Kai-qi2

(1.Department of Mining Engineering,Yulin Vocational and Technical College,Yulin 719000,China; 2.College of Safety Science and Engineering,Xi'an University of Science and Technology,Xi'an 710054,China)

numerical simulation; restaurant; FDS; temperature; visibility

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2018.0604

备注

为研究火灾场景下自然排烟和机械排烟2种方式对火灾发展的影响,指导人员进行安全疏散和为消防队灭火救援提供参考依据,采用FDS软件模拟的方法对特定餐馆模型在不同排烟方式下厨房、走廊、餐厅的温度、能见度、CO浓度变化情况和烟气蔓延过程进行分析探讨。结果 表明:综合3项安全指标考虑,自然排烟模式下走廊区域在火灾发生后81 s内为最佳逃生时间,而在机械排烟模式下,最佳逃生时间延长至100 s.自然排烟模式下,餐馆所有区域在277 s后均处于危险状态,而机械排烟能够将烟气控制在局部范围内,餐馆一半以上区域没有受到火灾波及。与自然排烟相比,机械排烟有效地将各个区域到达3种危险状态的时间推后,为人员的安全撤离争取了宝贵的时间。从而为保证火场人员的安全疏散和消防人员的灭火救援提供有利条件。因此,餐馆的防排烟系统设计宜选用布置合理、参数可靠的机械排烟系统。

In order to study the effects of natural smoke extraction and mechanical smoke extraction on the development of fires and to guide the evacuation and rescue,Fire Dynamics Simulator(FDS)was used to model the changes of the parameters during restaurant fires,including the distributions of temperature and CO concentration,the changes of the visibility and the propagation of smoke in the kitchen,corridor and dining-hall.The results showed that considering the three safety indicators,the corridor area under the natural smoke exhaust mode could provide the longest escape time,i.e.within 81s after the fire occurs.But the escape time was extended to 100s under the mechanical smoke exhaust mode.In the natural smoke exhaust mode,all areas in the restaurant were in danger after 277s.But under the mechanical smoke exhaust mode,mechanical exhaust could control the smoke within a local domain and more than half of the restaurants were free of smoke.Compared with natural smoke exhaust,mechanical smoke exhaust could effectively delay the time for each region to enter dangerous states,and strive for more valuable time for the safe evacuation of personnel trapped in fires.Therefore,it provides favorable conditions for ensuring safety evacuation and rescue.Consequently,the mechanical smoke exhaust system is preferable in terms of smoke control,people evacuation and rescue during restaurant fires.