天水地区乡村居住建筑热环境调查与优化

西安建筑科技大学 建筑学院,陕西 西安710055

乡村民居; 室内热环境; 热环境测试; 热环境模拟; 节能优化

Investigation and optimizing of thermal environment of rural residential buildings in Tianshui region
ZHANG Qun,SHI Jia-yi

(College of Architecture,Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology,Xi'an 710055,China)

rural residential; indoor thermal environment; thermal environment testing; thermal environment simulation; energy-saving opimization

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2017.0415

备注

为了解乡村民居冬季室内热环境现状,改善乡村居住建筑冬季室内热环境舒适性和节能性,现选取甘肃天水市街亭镇典型乡村民居作为研究对象,对当地现有民居冬季各功能房间室内温湿度、室外温度以及日太阳辐射量进行逐时测量。根据对建筑环境参数,目标建筑空间结构与功能的综合分析,发现当地典型民居存在空间设计不合理、构造措施简陋、用能方式单一等缺陷,室内热环境的舒适性仍达不到规范要求。结合当地冬季寒冷,阳光充足气候特点,考虑到偏远地区经济发展的局限性,从建筑空间设计、围护结构和太阳能资源利用等3方面提出建筑节能优化方案,以满足典型寒冷地区乡村民居热舒适性、经济性、节能性的指标。基于改进的建筑节能改造与优化方案,通过建筑模拟软件Ecotect建立建筑热工分析模型,利用计算机虚拟仿真手段对新方案建筑的热工性能进行模拟分析,评价各项节能设计的效果。结果 表明,通过对乡村民居热环境参数的调查与分析,发现在乡村新建与改造建筑设计方案中,立足于当地的气候条件与自然资源,合理设置建筑空间分隔、提高围护结构防寒与保温性能以及增设附加式阳光间门厅以提高建筑被动式得热能力等措施,可有效改善寒冷地区典型乡村民居建筑冬季室内热环境。

In order to understand the present situation of indoor thermal environment in winter,improve the indoor thermal environment comfort and energy efficiency,this study selected the tycipal rural architecture as the research object which is in the cold climate areas of Gansu Province,Tianshui Jieting town,measuring the indoor temperature,humidity,outdoor temperature and daily solar radiation of the local residential houses in winter.According to the obtained construction environment parameters and the comprehensive analysis of the spatial structure and function of the target building,it is found that the existing residential building envelope structure is poor,and there is a common custom of windows and doors,the indoor heat loss is serious.After further analysis and research,we found there is much more problem such as the unreasonable design of the space in the typical residential areas,simple construction method,and using single energy,which lead to high level of winter heating energy consumption,and indoor thermal comfort is still not up to the standard requirements.Combined with the local climate characteristics which is cold but plenty of sunshine,considering the limitations of economic development in rural areas,this paper,fromthree aspectsof the design of architectural space,enclosure structure and the utilization of solar energy resources,proposed energy saving optimization scheme of construction to meet the indexes of typical cold area rural residential thermal comfort,energy saving and economy.Based on the improvement of building energy conservation transformation and optimization program,we use Ecotect to build the building thermal model and simulate the thermal performance of the new scheme.Through the investigation and analysis of rural residential thermal environment parameters,our building plans are based on the climate conditions and natural resources of local,a reasonable set of measures to improve the building envelope and added additional sunshine room hall to enhance the construction of passive heat capacity to improve the indoor thermal environment comfort of typical rural houses in cold regions.