基于AHP和熵权法的古建筑火灾风险评估

西安科技大学 安全科学与工程学院,陕西 西安 710054

古建筑; 火灾风险评估; AHP; 熵权法

Fire risk assessment of the historic buildings based on AHP and entropy weight method
MA Li,LIU Han,BAI Lei

(College of Safety Science and Engineering,Xi'an University of Science and Technology,Xi'an 710054,China)

ancient buildings; fire risk assessment; analytic hierarchy process; entropy weight method

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2017.0413

备注

古建筑潜在火灾风险的评估对古建筑火灾防控有重要意义。以西安市回民街古建筑为例,基于实地调研识别出古建筑火灾风险的评估要素,并构建包括古建筑特征、火灾危险源、建筑消防设施、消防管理能力、火灾处理能力等5个一级指标和18个二级指标的古建筑火灾风险评价指标体系。同时,通过引入主、客观偏好系数,将基于AHP和熵权法分别计算得到的权重进行线性加权,得到风险评价指标的综合权重,并构建模糊综合评价模型。运用该评价模型对西安市回民街进行火灾风险评估,其评估等级为Ⅳ级,表明火灾危险性为较危险。通过具体分析5个一级评价指标得分,发现需要在古建筑特征、建筑消防设施以及火灾处理能力等方面进一步改善和提高,从而降低风险等级。该评价模型评价指标权重确定更为客观,可适用于多数古建筑,对科学防控古建筑火灾有重要参考意义。

The assessment of potential fire risk in ancient buildings is of great significance to the prevention and control of ancient buildings.Taking ancient buildings in Xi'an Muslim Quarter as research object,we identify the ancient building fire risk assessment factors based on field research.Based on these assessment factors,such as the characteristics of ancient buildings,fire hazards,fire facilities of ancient buildings,fire management capabilities and fire coping ability,a fire risk assessment system for ancient buildings is established.By introducing the preference factor,a comprehensive index weights can be obtained based on linear calculation results of the index weights calculated by AHP and entropy method,and then a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is established.The assessment grade of the ancient buildings in Xi'an Muslim Quarter is IV based on the evaluation model,which indicates that the fire risk is more dangerous.At the same time,the further analysis of evaluation score of first-class index has found that the method to reduce the risk level is to improve and strengthen characteristics of ancient buildings,fire facilities of ancient buildings and fire coping ability.The index weights of this evaluation model is more objective,so it can be applied to most historic buildings and has important reference significance for the prevention and control of ancient buildings fire.