民用航空涡扇发动机设计的法律及气动问题

1.北京理工大学 宇航学院,北京 100081; 2.中国铁建中非莱基投资有限公司,北京 100855; 3.中国科学院 上海高等研究院,上海 201203; 4.中国科学院 工程热物理研究所,北京 100190

大涵道比; 大型客机; 涡扇发动机设计; 法律法规

Legal and aerodynamic issues related to turbofan engines designed for civil aviation
WANG Bao-guo1 ,WANG Wei2,HUANG Wei-guang3,XU Yan-ji3,TAN Chun-qing4

(1.School of Aerospace Engineering,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081,China; 2.CRCC China-Africa Lekki Investment Ltd.,Beijing 100855,China; 3.Shanghai Advanced Research Institute,China Academy of Sciences,Shanghai 201203,China; 4.Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,China Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190,China)

high bypass ratio; large commercial airplane; design of turbofan; laws and regulations

DOI: 10.13800/j.cnki.xakjdxxb.2016.0517

备注

低污染、低噪音、低油耗和大功率已成为现代民用航空发展的奋斗目标。低污染与低噪音在国际上十分重视并已有明确与严格的法律规定,而低油耗和大功率涉及到飞机飞行的经济性。为了实现上述目标,各国航空设计者和法律工作者都做了许多努力。文中从气动设计的角度,针对低污染燃烧室和低噪音尾喷口设计中的关键技术问题进行了深入的研究,其中许多措施可用于指导这类发动机的设计。另外,从法律的角度深入探讨了在航空领域国际上十分重视发动机污染物的排放以及噪音限制的社会缘由与法律渊源。文中还通过回顾航天科学中国际上制定的一系列对地球大气层以及外层空间保护的国际法律文件,得出如下结论:无论是在航空科学还是在航天科学的研究中,保护大气层环境不被污染与损害是飞机发动机燃烧室与航天器燃烧设计者必须要考虑的首要因素,是不可推卸的社会责任。

The fundamental goal of the development of modern civil aviation is to achieve low pollution,low noise,low fuel consumption and high power.Reducing levels of pollution and noise has become worldwide consensus under the guidance of stringent international standards as well as national laws and regulations.Low fuel consumption and high power are closely linked with aviation's economic impact.To achieve these goals and objectives,aviation designers and legal practitioners around the world have made great contribution in this field.This paper,from the perspective of aerodynamic design,aims to explore crucial technical issues involved in low pollution combustion and low noise exhaust nozzle,suggesting measures that can be used to guide the design of such engines.Furthermore,we discusses social mechanisms and sources of law relating to pollutant and noise engine emissions.Reviewing a series of international legal documents on protection of the Earth's atmosphere and outer space,the paper concludes:the protection of the atmosphere,whether in the field of aviation or space science,should be the primary factor to be considered for engine chamber and spacecraft combustion designer,pointing to the inescapable social responsibility.